Rede Unida, 11º Congresso Internacional da Rede Unida

Tamanho da fonte: 
Manoel Guedes de Almeida, Débora Regina Marques Barbosa, Kleiton Richard da Silva Araújo


Introduction: Malaria is a potentially serious infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium unequally distributed in space, determining transmission standards differentiated geographically. Three species of the protozoa are related to the disease in Brazil, P. falciparum (F), P. vivax (V), and occasionally P. Malari (M), the first being more severe. When it is considered the fragmentation of healthcare for the control and identification of this disease in these areas, knowledge of local epidemiology adds to the clinical diagnosis of malaria. Furthermore, changes in the prevalence of the parasite in reported cases is virtually predictive of flows and tool for control the outbreaks, mobilizing politics and actions of health systems. The present study aims to approach the geo-etiological profile of malaria in Brazil. Materials and methods: Retrospective documentary study based on publications of the Ministry of Health and Information System for Notifiable Diseases for the year 2011 in Brazil. Results: During the study period, there were no cases of malaria by P. Malari. Moreover, there are two geographic areas in domain of P. falciparum and P. Vivax. The first comprises the states of Northeast Brazil, from hot and dry weather, torrential rain and vegetation, which highlight the Piaui and Ceara, with 42.72% and 30% (N = 1894) positive for F, respectively. The other,for its part , composed of the southern states, especially Parana (69.40%), cold climate and vegetation conifer, has a predominance of V (7.08%). The Southeastern States, in turn, have positive parasitological F + Gametocito of P. Falciparum (FG) (26.08%), especially Sao Paulo (38.86%), Rio de Janeiro (24.50%) and Minas Gerais (23.07%), while cases of malaria diagnosed in the States of the Midwest have parasitological positive for F + V (6.60%), with higher prevalence in Goiás (47.20%) and Distrito Federal (32.0%). CONCLUSION The geographical distribution of P. falciparum and P. Vivax in Brazil is marked, assuming greater importance for guiding health policies aimed at the epidemiological surveillance, especially in non-Amazonian areas. However Malaria not limited to geopolitica, structures, a larger number of cases by P. falciparum in areas of low Human Development Index also reflects socio-cultural aspects related to livelihoods, such as housing in proximity to possible sources. In these areas, interventions focused strictly on the fight against mosquitoes tend to fail.